Montane rough fescue (Festuca campestris Rydb.) grassland was historically grazed in winter, but changes in migratory behaviour of elk (Cervus elaphus) may lead to year-long grazing. Leslie describes spatio-temporal patterns in nutrient return on a fescue grassland at the Ya Ha Tinda ranch, response of grassland plants and soils to seasonal defoliation, and fescue plant response to nitrogen-form and defoliation. Elk pellet group distribution shifted seasonally and was associated with site productivity, rough fescue, topography, and vegetation cover. In a 2-year field experiment, aboveground carbon and nitrogen pools at the community level responded to changes in seasonal defoliation while root biomass and soil N did not change. A greenhouse experiment showed that decreased tillering and root growth, not increased mortality. Leslie discusses her research results in light of changing migratory patterns of elk and sustainability of elk-fescue grassland.